A – Z of Accounting | Basics of Accounting

First things first, Accounting is the practice of recording and reporting on business transactions. This helps you see how well your business is performing, in comparison with your expectations. 

Accounting methods 

Cash Accounting

Expenses paid and income received is accounted for when cash flows(when cash is paid or received)

Accrual Accounting

Expenses and income are accounted for when incurred

GAAP suggests Accrual Accounting. It portrays more accurate records

We touched a bit on this topic in our Bookkeeping workshop, here’s a skit:


Record Keeping

To enlighten you, this means setting up accounts in which financial information is stored. Accounts fall into the following classifications:

•Assets: business valuables, help the business make more money. E.g. product design 

•Liability: obligated to be paid by the business, they take money out of the business. E.g. loans 

•Equity: ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. Eg. shares

•Revenue: this is the amount billed to customers in exchange for the delivery of goods or provision of services.

•Expenses: the cost of operations that a company incurs to generate revenue.

Transactions 

If you own a company, you should set up separate accounts for banking, credit cards, etc. Don’t buy business supplies with your personal credit card. Organize your accounts and protect yourself and keep these two separate. Amongst other reasons, this will help you if any tax or legal issues arise (might depend on your business structure). 

These transactions are recorded within the business’s accounts by the accountant. Key transactions include:

✅The purchase of materials and services from suppliers.

✅Selling goods and services to customers. (Send invoice to customer) 

✅Receive payments from customers. 

✅Pay employees. (subtracting tax and other deductions, resulting in net salary).

Reporting

Also known as Bookkeeping, recording all transactions that occur in the business account. Amongst other reasons, this helps you budget, know the financial health of your business, and prepare you for tax season. The most common books are Income statements, Balance sheets, and Cash flow statements. 

Just to expand the above mentioned:

Income Statement – it presents all revenues and subtracts all expenses. It essentially measures the ability of a business to attract customers and operate in an efficient manner.

Balance Sheet – it presents the assets, liabilities, and equity of a business as of the end of the reporting period. This can also determine the ability of an organization to pay its bills.

Statement of Cash Flows – it presents the sources and uses of cash during the reporting period. It is especially useful when the amount of net income appearing on the income statement varies from the net change in cash during the reporting period.

Another thing to look at is Budgeting and Forecasting. This has much more benefits other than getting funds from the bank or investors. Planning your finances helps you keep a healthy relationship with your money/accounts; thus helping you make better financial decisions in your business. Keep it realistic and achievable. 

Should you need assistance or have any questions regarding accounting, do get in touch with us here: 

📧: info@accasesolutions.co.za

☎: 0615238833

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How to close off business for 2021 | Bookkeeping | Accounting


What better way is there than to prepare for the future by reflecting on your progress? This is why KPIs (key performance indicators) are so important. “It is better to move forward, than to move fast and backwards”. Now, how do you measure that you’re really going forward? 

What do the books say about revenue growth? The “books” are a business’s revenue, expense and income summary reports. Lucky for you if you are using an accounting software, it automatically closes your income and expense accounts at year end before adding your net profit (or loss) to your retained earnings account. If you have not automated this process and recording in your books manually, read on. 

Closing the books annually lets businesses draw up financial statements that give business owners insights into their business’s financial health. This also helps you to properly file for your income tax returns. 

Here are 5 things you need to do before you close off the business year: 

* Monetize all invoices.

Be sure to send out reminders to clients on outstanding payments and that all the invoices are being monetized. If some clients don’t pay you, you can write the invoices off as bad debt (or if you think they are never going to pay you-this is why contract agreements are important). Follow up on invoices and payments, and make sure all the business money has reached the business account. 

* Record your expenses.

ALL your bills go onto this; from things as little as internet costs, fixed costs, to variable costs. This includes incurred business expenses, keep track of those separately; you can claim tax deductions on these.

* Reconcile bank statements.

This is a common practice for many, even for personal finance. This will help you identify discrepancies, possible bank errors, or fraudulent activity that may have happened in your account. This can also help you reflect on some transactions you have authorized, that might kill your business, canceled and uncleared checks. 

* Profit and Loss.

This reports on your business performance over the year. This shows the value of sales, expenses, and overheads and the resulting gross and net profit or loss for the year. Run it from the first day of your fiscal year to the last. 

* Balance Sheet.

This report shows the worth of your business from the day you started trading, up to the end of the fiscal year. It includes your company assets and liabilities. 

That’s a few pointers from us. Let us know what your year end closing tradition is like, we would love to hear about the different ways for different businesses. 

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Bookkeeping Guide

Let’s not assume you know, and take it from the top. 

Bookkeeping is the recording of financial transactions made by a business, this means keeping track of what your business spends and what you receive. The  transactions would be recorded in daybooks, cashbooks, or journals, you can also use a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel.

Do you need a bookkeeper for your business? 

You can either do this by setting up a software, or hire a bookkeeper to keep your books in check. A Bookkeeper’s responsibility is to record, classify, and organize every financial transaction that is made throughout business operations. 

Amongst other reasons, one of the reasons why some startups fail is due to the poor management of money: sole business owners mostly can relate. It gets a bit challenging to separate business finances form personal finances, making it harder to account for some of the money that comes in, and goes out of the business because no one is holding you accountable for anything. This is where bookkeeping comes in. When studied thoroughly, you can see some of your spending habits which you need to change.

3 reasons why you need bookkeeping:

  1. To reflect on whether you are spending more than you make, vise versa. Moreover, bookkeeping enables you to seamlessly analyze your expenses, and adjust your budget, if need be. You will have a record of all your financial information you may need in a case where you want to plan or budget for the future. 
  2. You can curate accurate tax returns. Tax preparation can be a stressful season for small business owners, this is where bookkeeping comes in. Instead of looking through a pile of documents to get the required information, bookkeeping ensures that this information is well organized beforehand.
  3. We have mentioned before, cashflow is one of the struggles small businesses have. Bookkeeping will help you mitigate that challenge by keeping track of the cash going in and out of your business. Having this kind of information will give you the confidence and peace of mind you need to make financial decisions. 

Bookkeeping: How-To

  1. Record your sales (in a cashbook/spreadsheet).
  2. Note down every business-related purchase (keep proof of purchase).
  3. Regularly cross-referencing your business books against your bank statements to check that the transactions and balances match, A.K.A Reconciliation. 

Other things to note…

  1. Accounts receivable, i.e. issuing invoices and making sure they’re paid, and accounts payable, i.e.paying bills on time.
  2. Payroll (paying employees). 


Bookkeeping software

There are many small businesses that use online bookkeeping software to speed up the job, this also cuts down on human data-entry errors and saves time. The benefits of these tools include, but not limited to: automatically pay bills, send automated invoice reminders to people who owe you money, and allow you to check cash flow from your phone. 


Here are 3 softwares you can check out:

1️⃣ Sage 

2️⃣ Xero 

3️⃣ QuickBooks


I’m conclusion…

If you are too much of a busy for bookkeeping for your small business, then you can find someone to do it for you; outsource or hire. We have an article on what’s the best option between the two, again this depends on a number of things. If you wish to get a bookkeeper for your business, look no further: Accase Solutions would love to assist! Reach us here: 

 ✉️: info@accasesolutions.co.za

☎: 0615238833