A – Z of Accounting | Basics of Accounting

First things first, Accounting is the practice of recording and reporting on business transactions. This helps you see how well your business is performing, in comparison with your expectations. 

Accounting methods 

Cash Accounting

Expenses paid and income received is accounted for when cash flows(when cash is paid or received)

Accrual Accounting

Expenses and income are accounted for when incurred

GAAP suggests Accrual Accounting. It portrays more accurate records

We touched a bit on this topic in our Bookkeeping workshop, here’s a skit:


Record Keeping

To enlighten you, this means setting up accounts in which financial information is stored. Accounts fall into the following classifications:

•Assets: business valuables, help the business make more money. E.g. product design 

•Liability: obligated to be paid by the business, they take money out of the business. E.g. loans 

•Equity: ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. Eg. shares

•Revenue: this is the amount billed to customers in exchange for the delivery of goods or provision of services.

•Expenses: the cost of operations that a company incurs to generate revenue.

Transactions 

If you own a company, you should set up separate accounts for banking, credit cards, etc. Don’t buy business supplies with your personal credit card. Organize your accounts and protect yourself and keep these two separate. Amongst other reasons, this will help you if any tax or legal issues arise (might depend on your business structure). 

These transactions are recorded within the business’s accounts by the accountant. Key transactions include:

✅The purchase of materials and services from suppliers.

✅Selling goods and services to customers. (Send invoice to customer) 

✅Receive payments from customers. 

✅Pay employees. (subtracting tax and other deductions, resulting in net salary).

Reporting

Also known as Bookkeeping, recording all transactions that occur in the business account. Amongst other reasons, this helps you budget, know the financial health of your business, and prepare you for tax season. The most common books are Income statements, Balance sheets, and Cash flow statements. 

Just to expand the above mentioned:

Income Statement – it presents all revenues and subtracts all expenses. It essentially measures the ability of a business to attract customers and operate in an efficient manner.

Balance Sheet – it presents the assets, liabilities, and equity of a business as of the end of the reporting period. This can also determine the ability of an organization to pay its bills.

Statement of Cash Flows – it presents the sources and uses of cash during the reporting period. It is especially useful when the amount of net income appearing on the income statement varies from the net change in cash during the reporting period.

Another thing to look at is Budgeting and Forecasting. This has much more benefits other than getting funds from the bank or investors. Planning your finances helps you keep a healthy relationship with your money/accounts; thus helping you make better financial decisions in your business. Keep it realistic and achievable. 

Should you need assistance or have any questions regarding accounting, do get in touch with us here: 

📧: info@accasesolutions.co.za

☎: 0615238833

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